德国短毛指示猎犬 FCI国际纯种犬标准

更新日期:2018-09-26
宠爱Club

注:该标准中文版翻译自FCI国际纯种犬标准英文版,已发布于CKU官网-犬种百科

25.04.2011/ EN

FCI-国际纯种犬标准第 119 号

GERMAN SHORTHAIRED POINTING DOG (Deutsch Kurzhaar) 

德国短毛指示猎犬

本图片不一定代表该犬种的理想例子

ORIGIN:  Germany. 

起源:德国

Date of acceptance on a definitive basis by the FCI: 1/1/1954

FCI正式认可日期:1954年1月1日

DATE OF PUBLICATION OF THE OFFICIAL VALID STANDARD: 25.10.2000. 

正式生效标准发布日期:2000年10月25日

UTILIZATIONVersatile hunting dog. 

用途:多功能猎犬

FCI-CLASSIFICATION

Group 7 Pointing Dogs. 

Section 1.1 Continental Pointing Dogs « Braque » Type. 

With working trial.

FCI分组

第七组:指示犬组

第1.1类:大陆指示犬“布拉克”型

有工作测试

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY

The history of the German Shorthaired Pointing Dog starts with the dogs which were used for the hunt with nets on feathered game, especially in the Mediterranean countries, and in combination with falconry. Via France, Spain and Flanders the Pointers came to the German courts. The most important distinctive feature of these dogs was their pointing performance. After the first double-barreled gun was made (1750), a pointing dog was even more required. In full sight of the dog « game birds in flight » were shot. That was the beginning of the transition from a mere pointer to a versatile gundog. As a fundamental basis for the structure and development of the breed the « Zuchtbuch Deutsch-Kurzhaar » (Studbook) has been published since 1897. It was Prince Albrecht Zu Solms-Braunfeld who compiled breed characteristics, judging rules for conformation and finally also simple trial regulations for hunting dogs. Today the German Shorthaired Pointing Dog still passes through the filter of elaborated breeding- and trial regulations. The standard stipulates the consitution of the German Shorthaired Pointing Dog, as a versatile hunting dog, which enables him to perform all requirements in connection with hunting activities, even when advanced in age. 

历史沿革

德国短毛指示犬的历史是从用网捕鸟开始的,特别是在地中海国家,通常与猎鹰结合使用。经由法国,西班牙和佛兰德斯地区,指示犬传到德国。这类犬最为显著的特征是它们的指示能力。在第一只双筒猎枪问世之后(1750),人们对指示犬的需求大大增加。德国短毛指示犬不再仅仅可以猎取飞行中的鸟类,而是开始从单一的指示犬转变成多用途猎犬。作为该犬种结构和发展的基础,德国短毛指示犬俱乐部于1897年出版了血统簿。Albrecht Zu Solms-Braunfeld王子编写了犬种特征,对其结构形态的执裁规则以及简单的狩猎犬工作测试规则。今天,合格的德国短毛指示犬依旧需要通过缜密的繁殖和工作测试规定。犬种标准规定了德国短毛指示犬作为一种多功能狩猎犬的必备素质,这些都与相关狩猎活动中所需要求紧密相连,甚至可以保证年龄大的犬只也能胜任。

GENERAL APPEARANCE:

A dog of noble and balanced appearance, the conformation of which ensures strength, endurance and speed. Proud attitude, smooth outlines, lean head, well carried tail, firm shiny coat and well reaching, harmonious strides emphasize its nobility. 

整体外貌

外形匀称,显高贵,身体结构使其具备力量,耐力和速度。自豪,线条流畅,头部消瘦,尾部姿态佳,被毛硬且有光泽,步幅大,步态协调,这些特质都彰显了其高贵的气质。

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS

Length of body should slightly exceed height at withers.

重要比例

体长应略长于肩高。

BEHAVIOUR/TEMPERAMENT:

irm, balanced, reliable, restrained temperament, neither nervous nor shy or aggressive. 

行为/秉性

坚定,平和,可靠,性情克制,不紧张,不害羞,没有攻击性。

HEAD: 头部

Lean, well defined, neither too light nor too heavy; as to strength and length it matches the substance and the sex of the dog. 

消瘦,轮廓明显,既不过轻也不过重。力量和长度与犬只的骨量和性别相符。

CRANIAL REGION: 颅部区域

Skulloderately wide, flatly rounded, scarcely pronounced occipital bone, frontal furrow not too deep, noticeably developed superciliary ridges. 

头骨:宽度适度,平,圆,枕骨不明显,额骨皱纹不太深,眉脊明显。

StopModerately defined.

额段:适度明显。

FACIAL REGION: 面部区域

NoseSomewhat protruding. Nostrils sufficiently wide, broad and mobile. Basically brown, however black in black or black roan dogs. A flesh-colored or spotted nose is only permissible in dogs with white as basic color. 

:略突出。鼻孔足够宽,宽,灵活。基本上为棕色,黑色鼻适用于整体黑色或带黑色的犬只,白色或带斑点的鼻则只适用于白色为主色的犬只。但是整体黑色或带黑色的犬只鼻为黑色。仅以白色为主色的犬只,鼻可为肉色或斑点色。

Muzzle Long, broad, deep and strong in order to enable the dog’s correct carrying of game. Viewed from the side the nasal bridge shows a slight curvature in all transitions from a nobly constructed ram’s nose to a slight rise above the straight line - more prominent in males. A totally straight nasal bridge, although still acceptable, is less attractive; a concave bridge (dish-face) is a serious fault. 

口吻:长,宽,深且强壮,这些特点确保犬只在狩猎活动中准确衔取猎物。从侧面看,鼻梁微拱,样子从高贵的公羊鼻到比直线略高皆可,公犬更为突出。笔直的鼻梁也可接受,但缺乏吸引力。凹鼻梁(碟子脸)是严重的缺陷。

LipsTight fitting, not too pendulous, good pigmentation. The nasolabial line slopes almost vertically and then continues in a flat arch to the moderately pronounced corner of the lips. 

嘴唇:紧密贴合,不过于下垂,色素沉淀良好。鼻唇线倾斜,几乎垂直,并以平拱形延伸至适度明显的嘴角。

Jaws/TeethStrong jaws with a perfect, regular and complete scissor bite. The upper inscisors should reach over the lower incisors without gap and the teeth should be positioned vertically in the jaws. 42 sound teeth, in accordance with the teeth formula. 

颌/齿:颌强壮,拥有完美,规则而完全的剪状咬合。上门牙紧贴下门牙外侧,没有缝隙,垂直的长在颌部。共有42颗健康的牙齿,与齿系吻合。

Cheeks: Strong, well-muscled. 

面颊:强壮,肌肉有力。

EyesOf medium size, neither protruding nor deep set. The ideal color is dark brown. Eyelids tight fitting. 

眼睛:中等大小,既不凸出也不深陷。理想的颜色为深棕色。眼睑紧密贴合。

EarsModerately long, set on high and broad, flat and without twisting, hanging down close to the head, bluntly rounded at the tip. Neither too fleshy nor too thin. When brought forward they are supposed to reach more or less the corner of the lips. 

耳朵:长度适中,耳部位置高且宽,平,没有扭曲,自然下垂紧贴头部,耳端呈圆形。既不太过丰满也不过薄。耳部向前拉直时应可至唇角。

NECKLength in harmony with general appearance of the dog, progressively thickening towards the body. Very muscular and slightly crested nape. Tight fitting skin of throat. 

颈部:长度与犬只整体外形相协调,朝身体方向逐渐变粗。肌肉有力,颈部略有饰毛。喉部皮肤紧致。

BODY: 躯干

Top line: Straight and slightly sloping. 

背线:直,略微倾斜。

Withers: Well defined. 

:明显。

Back: Firm and muscular. Vertebral processes should be covered by muscles. 

:结实,强健。脊椎上应覆有肌肉。

Loins Short, broad, muscular, straight or slightly arched. Transition from back to loin tight and well knit. 

:短,宽,有肌肉,直或略呈拱形。从背部至腰部的过渡紧凑,连接良好。

CroupBroad and long enough, not abruptly slanting, but slightly slanting towards the tail, well-muscled. 

:宽且足够长,倾斜程度不突兀,但略向尾部倾斜,肌肉结实。

ChestSomewhat deeper than broad with well-defined forechest, with the sternum reaching back as far as possible. Sternum and elbow joint on the same level. Ribs well sprung, neither flat nor barrel-shaped. False ribs well reaching down. 

:深度略大于宽度,前胸明显,胸骨尽量向后延伸。胸骨和肘关节在同一水平面上。肋骨扩张良好,既不平也不似水桶型。假肋自然向下伸展。

Underline: With elegant arch, slightly tucked up towards rear, dry. 

腹线:弧度优雅,朝后肢方向略向上折起,紧致。

TAILSet high, strong at the root and then tapering, of medium length. About halfway docked for hunting purposes. At rest hanging down; in movement horizontal, neither carried too high above the backline nor extremely bent. (In countries where tail docking is prohibited by law, the tail can remain in its natural shape. It should reach down as far as the hocks and be carried straight or slightly sabre tail fashion). 

:尾根位置高,尾根部强壮,至末端逐渐变细,中等长度。出于狩猎目的,尾部大约截去一半。静态时尾部下垂;动态时为水平,既不举起高于背线也不过度弯曲。(在不允许断尾的国家,尾部保持其原有的形状。可延伸至跖部,保持笔直或略微呈马刀状。)


LIMBS: 四肢

FOREQUARTERS: 前躯

General appearanceviewed from the front, straight and parallel; viewed from the side, the legs are well placed under the body. 

整体外形:从前面看,直且平行;从侧面看,腿位于身体下部,位置良好。

Shoulder Shoulder blades well laid back, well attached to chest, and strongly muscled. Shoulder blade and upper arm well angulated.

:肩胛骨后置良好,与胸部连接良好,肌肉结实。肩胛和上肢角度良好。

Upperam : As long as possible, well-muscled and dry.

上臂:越长越好,肌肉发达,干燥。

Elbows :Close but not too tight to body, neither turned in nor out, well set back. 

:近,但不过分紧贴身体,既不内翻也不外翻,自然向后。

Forearm:  Straight and sufficiently muscled. Strong bone, not too coarse. 

前肢:直,肌肉充足。骨骼强健,不过分粗糙。

Pastern joint: Strong. 

系关节:强壮。

Pastern: Minimal angulation of pastern and forearm, never standing upright.

系部:系骨和前肢的角度为最小,从不为竖直状。

Forefeet: Round to spoon shaped, with well tight and adequately arched toes. Strong toenails. Tough, resistant pads. Feet set parallel, neither turned in nor out, in stance as well as in movement.

前足:圆到勺形,脚趾紧凑,充分拱起。趾甲强壮。脚垫结实耐磨。足部平行,不管静态还是动态时,既不外翻也不内翻。

LIMBS: 四肢

HINDQUARTERS: 后

General appearance: Viewed from behind straight and parallel. Good angulations in stifles and hocks, strong bone. 

整体外形:从后面看直且平行。后膝关节和跖骨角度良好。骨骼强壮。

Upper thighLong, broad and muscular, with good angulation between pelvis and femur.

大腿:长,宽且肌肉发达,骨盆和大腿骨之间角度良好。

Stifle (Knee)Strong, with good angulation of upper- and lower thigh.

:强壮,与大腿和大腿下部角度良好。

Lower thigh: Long, muscular with clearly visible tendons. Good angulation between lower thigh and hocks.

小腿:长,肌肉发达,肌腱清晰可见。大腿下部和跗骨之间角度良好。

Hock joint: Strong. 

跗关节:强壮。

Hocks: Strong, vertical. 

跗骨:强壮,垂直。

Hind feet :Round to spoon shaped, with well tight and adequately arched toes. Strong toenails. Tough, resistant pads. Foot set parallel, neither turned in nor out, in stance as well as in movement.

后足:圆呈勺形,脚趾紧凑,充分拱起。趾甲强壮。脚垫结实耐磨。脚部平行,不管静态还是动态时,既不外翻也不内翻。

GAIT/MOVEMENT:  

Well extended strides, with forceful propulsion from the hindquarters and adequate reach of the forelimbs. Front and hind legs moving straight and parallel. The dog is carrying himself in a proud attitude. Pacing gait is not desirable. 

步态/动态

步幅大,后肢驱动力强,前肢步幅适当。前后腿运动时直且平行。姿态骄傲。踱步则不理想。

SKIN: Close and tight, not wrinkly. 

皮肤:紧凑,紧致,无皱纹。

COAT: 被毛

Hair:  short and dense, rough and hard to the touch. Somewhat thinner and shorter on the head and ears, not remarkably longer at the underside of the tail. Should cover the whole body. 

毛质:短且密,手感粗糙且坚硬,头部和耳部的略短和稀。尾部下侧不太长。被毛应覆盖整个身体。

Colour

  • Solid brown, without markings. 

  • Brown with small white or flecked markings at chest and legs. 

  • Dark brown roan, with brown head, brown patches or specks. The basic colour of such a dog is not brown mixed with whit or white with brown, but the coat shows such an even intensive mixture of brown and white which results in that kind of inconspicuous exterior of the dog ever so valuable for the practical hunt. At the inner sides of the hindlegs as well as at the tip of the tail the colour is often lighter. 

  • Light brown roan with brown head, brown patches, specks or without patches. In this coloring the brown hairs are fewer, the white hairs are predominant. 

  • White with brown head markings, brown patches or specks. 

  • Black colour in the same nuances as the brown, respectively the brown roan colours.  

  • Yellow tan markings are permissible. 

  • Blaze, fleck and speckled flews are permissible. 

  • 毛色

  • 纯棕色,没有斑纹。

  • 棕色,胸部和腿上带有小块白色斑点或其他颜色的斑点。

  • 深棕色杂色,棕色的头部,有棕色的斑块或斑点。该颜色犬的基础色不是棕色带白或白色带棕,而是被毛为均匀的棕色和白色的混合体,这使得犬只的外形不易被察觉,在狩猎实践中颇有价值。后腿内侧和尾尖的颜色通常略浅。

  • 浅棕色杂色,棕色的头部,有棕色的斑块、斑点或没有。在这种毛色中,棕色的毛发较少,白色毛发居多。

  • 白色,头部带棕色斑纹,有棕色的斑块或斑点。

  • 与棕色差别不大的黑色,或与棕色差别不大的红棕色。

  • 可有黄棕褐色斑纹。

  • 上唇两旁的下垂部分可有斑纹和斑点。

  • SIZE: 尺寸

    Height at the withers:

    Dogs 62 to 66 cm.             

    Bitches 58 to 63 cm. 

    肩高

    公犬:62-66厘米

    母犬:58-63厘米

    FAULTS: 缺陷

    Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.

  • Faults in attitude, not according or typical to gender. 

  • Muzzle too short. 

  • Flews too heavy or too thin. 

  • From the total of 4 PM 1 and 2 M3 only two teeth may be missing. 

  • Eyes too light. Yellowish « bird of prey » eyes. 

  • Ears too long, too short, too heavy, set on too narrow or twisted. 

  • Loose skin at throat. 

  • Slight roach back. 

  • Rump too short. 

  • Chest too deep. 

  • Tail strongly bent or carried too high above the topline. 

  • Elbows turned in or out. Feet turned in or out; forelegs standing close or wide. 

  • Hindquarters too straight. 

  • Slightly bow-legged, slightly cow-hocked or close hocks. 

  • 任何与上述各点相背离的均视为缺陷,其缺陷的严重性严格地与其缺陷的程度和对犬只健康和福利带来的影响成正比。

  • 姿态与性别不符或不典型。

  • 口吻太短。

  • 上唇两侧的下垂部分过重或过薄。

  • 在4颗PM1和2颗M3中,最多可以缺失两颗。(PM为小臼齿,M为大臼齿)

  • 眼睛颜色过淡。微黄色的“猛禽”眼。

  • 耳过长,过短,过重,两耳间距过窄或扭曲。

  • 喉部皮肤松弛。

  • 背部略微拱起。

  • 臀部过短。

  • 胸部过深。

  • 尾过度弯曲或过度高举于背线。

  • 肘内翻或外翻。脚外翻或内翻。前腿间距过宽或过窄。

  • 后肢过直。

  • 略微弓形腿,略微牛肢或两附关节间距离过近。

  • SERIOUS FAULTS: 严重缺陷

  • Clumsy, lymphatic, coarse conformation. 

  • Marked stop. 

  • Flesh-coloured or flecked nose (except when basic colour of coat is white). 

  • Snipy muzzle, concave bridge of the nose (dish-face). 

  • Pincer bite or partial pincer bite (For dogs older than 4 years a socalled pincer bite due to age shall not affect evaluation as long as a « Deutsch-Kurzhaar-Club » has certified that at a previous show a correct bite was confirmed). 

  • Distinct roach back, slight swayback. 

  • Considerable lack in depth of chest. Poorly developed forechest. 

  • Distinctly turned in or turned out elbows. 

  • Weak and down on pasterns. 

  • Pastern totally vertical. 

  • Distinctly cow-hocked or bow-legged, in stance as well as in movement. 

  • Overbuilt hindquarters. 

  • Flat feet.  

  • Spread toes. 

  • Clumsy gait. 

  • Deviation of more than 2 cm from the given height at the withers. 

  • 形态笨拙,淋巴异样,粗糙。

  • 额段过于明显。

  • 肉色或带斑点的鼻子(除被毛基础色为白色的犬只)。

  • 口鼻过于狭长,凹鼻梁(碟脸)。

  • 钳状咬合或部分为钳状咬合(年龄大于4岁的犬只,只要经德国短毛指示犬俱乐部证实在之前的犬展中已确认该犬只拥有正确的咬合,那么由于年龄原因形成的钳状咬合不影响比赛评价)。

  • 背部明显拱起,略凹陷。

  • 胸部深度不足。前胸发育不良。肋骨太平或呈水桶状。

  • 肘部明显内翻或外翻。

  • 系部无力且下垂。

  • 系部完全垂直。

  • 不管是静态还是动态时,明显的牛肢或弓形腿。

  • 后肢过壮。

  • 平足。

  • 脚趾分散。

  • 步态笨拙。

  • 对比理想肩高,偏差大于2厘米。

  • DISQUALIFYING FAULTS: 失格缺陷

  • Aggressive or overly shy dogs. 

  • Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified. 

  • Distinctly non-typical gender characteristics. 

  • Absence of more than 2 teeth from the total of 4 PM 1 and 2 M3. Absence of 1 tooth or more teeth other than PM 1 and M3. Non visible teeth have to be considered as missing except when certified by a « Deutsch-Kurzhaar-Club » that at a previous show or trial their existence was confirmed. 

  • Overshot and undershot bite, wry mouth as well as all intergrades. 

  • Any surplus teeth arranged outside the dental arch. 

  • Cleft palate and hare lip. 

  • Excessively loose eyelids, ectropion, entropion, distichiasis (double row of eyelashes). 

  • Excessive swayback, malformation of the spine. 

  • Any malformation of the chest, e.g. « clipped sternum » (short sternum blending abruptly into the abdominal line). 

  • Dewclaws with or without bony skeleton. 

  • Weak character. 

  • 有攻击性或过于害羞。

  • 任何在身体和行为上明显失常的犬只应视为失格。

  • 明显不具有典型的性别特征。

  • 4颗PM1和两颗M3中,缺失两颗以上的牙齿。除PM1和M3外,其他牙齿缺失一颗或更多。不可见的牙齿视为缺失,除非在之前的犬展或测试中已由德国短毛指示犬俱乐部确认其存在。

  • 上颌或下颌突出,嘴巴歪斜以及介于两者之间的其他情况。

  • 齿弓以外有多余牙齿。

  • 腭裂或兔唇。

  • 眼睑过松,睑外翻,睑内翻,双行睫(有两行睫毛)。

  • 背部凹陷,脊椎畸形。

  • 胸部的任何畸形,例如,胸骨过短(胸骨短,与腹线结合唐突)。

  • 狼爪或多骨的狼爪。

  • 性格软弱。

  • N.B.

  • Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fullydescended into the scrotum. 

  • Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typicalconformation, should be used for breeding.

  • 公犬具备两个明显正常且完全置于阴囊的睾丸

  • 只有身体机能以及临床表现健康的,具备典型犬种结构的犬只,才可用于繁殖。

  • ▲ 犬只各部位名称(FCI标准通用)



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